Documentary “More of everything – The Swedish Forestry Model ” – Transcript [English]

1. Scientists and experts, in order of appearance [57h38m]

  • [AL] ARTUR LARSSON, Conservation biologist -System Manager, Swedish Species Information Centre
  • [MB] MARY S. BOOTH, Director, Partnership for Policy Integrity
  • [BJ] BENGT GUNNAR JONSSON, Professor, Mid Sweden University, Department of Natural Sciences
  • [EW] ERIK WESTHOLM, Professor Emeritus, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department for Urban and Rural Studies
  • [SH] STIG-OLOF HOLM, PhD, Ecology, Umea University, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences
  • [LÖ] LARS ÖSTLUND, Professor, Forest History, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Forest Ecology and Management
  • [JA] JON ANDERSSON, PhD Biology, Forest and GIS Expert
  • [PA] PER ANGELSTAM, Professor, Forest and natural resource management  and governance, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Faculty of Forest Sciences
  • [AD] ANDERS DAHLBERG, Professor, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Forest Mycology and Plant Pathology
  • [AL] ANDERS LINDROTH, Professor Emeritus, Lund University, Department of Physics Geography and Ecosystem Science
  • [LG] LENA GUSTAFSSON, Professor Emeritus , Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Ecology

2. Subtitles in SubRip file format (SRT)

Note 1: Extracted via https://savesubs.com from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=q51FMbTOn_Q

Note 2: Initiales of speakers  were added.


1
00:00:32,070 –> 00:00:35,220
Nobody has shown that it is a
sustainable forestry.

2
00:00:35,720 –> 00:00:40,610
I think the industry has found it
very convenient to perpetuate

3
00:00:40,710 –> 00:00:45,110
this myth, that bioenergy does not
have a net impact on the atmosphere.

4
00:00:45,210 –> 00:00:48,600
The situation is not getting better.
It is actually getting worse over time.

5
00:00:48,780 –> 00:00:54,540
The large synthesis was really
the initiation of a huge lobbying effort.

6
00:00:54,680 –> 00:00:57,700
The forestry in Sweden as it is designed today

7
00:00:57,800 –> 00:01:02,050
is the single largest
threat to the environment in Sweden.

8
00:01:03,080 –> 00:01:08,040
The so-called Swedish forestry model is promoted
all over the world as a success story.

9
00:01:08,360 –> 00:01:13,840
In times of climate change, the forest
industry claims to hold the magic wand: Wood.

10
00:01:14,000 –> 00:01:16,492
Wood is to be used for
everything from packaging,

11
00:01:16,592 –> 00:01:20,272
makeup, and clothing, to fuel
for an ever expanding transport sector.

12
00:01:21,080 –> 00:01:24,082
To push this narrative,
they spend millions and millions

13
00:01:24,182 –> 00:01:26,960
on advertising, public relations
and lobbying.

14
00:01:27,400 –> 00:01:31,312
In this film, with the help of independent
scientists and experts, we will

15
00:01:31,412 –> 00:01:34,702
examine some of their claims.
Because if these are not true,

16
00:01:34,792 –> 00:01:38,212
continuing and spreading the
Swedish forestry model could

17
00:01:38,312 –> 00:01:42,202
jeopardize the climate and the
ecosystems on which we all depend.

18
00:01:53,160 –> 00:01:56,920
Many people think that a forest
is a large collection of trees,

19
00:01:57,160 –> 00:01:59,600
but a forest is more than just trees.

20
00:02:00,040 –> 00:02:04,400
A natural forest consists of all the species
above and below ground,

21
00:02:04,579 –> 00:02:08,604
plants, huge fungal networks, animals,
and the interaction between them.

22
00:02:09,114 –> 00:02:14,480
Trees are born, they live, die and
provide homes to countless organisms.

23
00:02:17,200 –> 00:02:19,814
Sweden harbours an
important part of Europe’s last

24
00:02:19,914 –> 00:02:23,160
remaining natural forests which
have never been clear cut,

25
00:02:23,394 –> 00:02:27,320
so-called continuity forests or
ancient woodlands.

26
00:02:28,493 –> 00:02:32,040
But Europe’s natural heritage is threatened.

27
00:02:33,383 –> 00:02:37,280
Every year the area of continuity forest shrinks in Sweden.

28
00:02:38,785 –> 00:02:44,724
That is because both non-certified and also
PEFC and FSC certified forest owners

29
00:02:45,204 –> 00:02:49,464
continue to clear cut and
destroy valuable natural forests

30
00:02:50,064 –> 00:02:53,274
without caring for the
consequences for the ecosystems.

31
00:02:53,904 –> 00:02:57,264
Few people who hear about the
Swedish forestry model are fully

32
00:02:57,364 –> 00:03:02,640
aware of how it works.
To summarize, it is more like tree agriculture.

33
00:03:03,000 –> 00:03:05,566
Older forests are clear cut,
and the ground is often harrowed.

34
00:03:05,666 –> 00:03:09,316
The most common regeneration method is to plant

35
00:03:09,346 –> 00:03:13,456
pre grown seedlings. After some
time the stands are thinned and

36
00:03:13,556 –> 00:03:16,936
when the trees are considered
ready, they are clear cut again.

37
00:03:17,736 –> 00:03:21,066
Especially during the 1900s
we have had a

38
00:03:21,166 –> 00:03:26,166
major transition of the
Swedish forest. And that is

39
00:03:26,266 –> 00:03:31,080
because we have started with
what we usually call modern forestry.

40
00:03:31,280 –> 00:03:34,746
This is a technical
forestry, and it is moving the

41
00:03:34,846 –> 00:03:39,280
forest towards more of an
agricultural like state

42
00:03:39,606 –> 00:03:44,436
where we not only harvest trees,
but we also manipulate the ecosystem

43
00:03:44,536 –> 00:03:47,760
in order to increase the
production of the forest.

44
00:03:48,156 –> 00:03:52,446
And we have been doing ditching on a
large scale of forest land.

45
00:03:52,806 –> 00:03:55,776
We have been using herbicides.
We have been clear cutting,

46
00:03:56,046 –> 00:03:58,880
and we are lowering the total
age of the forest.

47
00:03:59,035 –> 00:04:05,640
And we are having the same species and the
same age of forest in separate stands,

48
00:04:05,840 –> 00:04:08,828
which was never the case
before, where we had landscape

49
00:04:08,858 –> 00:04:12,338
covering forest with trees of
different species and trees in

50
00:04:12,488 –> 00:04:16,680
different age classes, all over
the forest landscape.

51
00:04:17,270 –> 00:04:20,918
Forest ecologist and expert in
geographical information system,

52
00:04:20,948 –> 00:04:23,560
Dr. Jon Anderson has visualized the

53
00:04:23,720 –> 00:04:27,200
dramatic change in Swedish taiga since the 1950s.

54
00:04:27,520 –> 00:04:31,520
The study area is located here
in the Northern part of Sweden

55
00:04:31,800 –> 00:04:38,200
in Västerbotten County and it covers
roughly 17,000 square kilometers.

56
00:04:38,400 –> 00:04:40,568
So these green areas, it is forest

57
00:04:40,658 –> 00:04:44,160
that has not previously been clear-cut at this time.

58
00:04:44,488 –> 00:04:46,720
And the yellow patches, it is clear cuts.

59
00:04:47,160 –> 00:04:50,520
These small black lines, it is logging roads.

60
00:04:50,770 –> 00:04:54,880
These grey areas, these
are impediments. So forest is

61
00:04:54,938 –> 00:04:58,320
not growing there by definition.

62
00:05:00,528 –> 00:05:04,320
Now see here, it came a very big nature reserve.

63
00:05:04,441 –> 00:05:09,880
But if you remember here, it is mostly mires actually.

64
00:05:10,130 –> 00:05:14,280
The same goes for this one.
So these patches

65
00:05:14,470 –> 00:05:19,680
cover the entire area, but the
entire area is not covered by forest.

66
00:05:20,480 –> 00:05:24,920
And as you can see here,
the landscape is now really patchy.

67
00:05:25,160 –> 00:05:31,000
Green areas with old-growth forest, they go further
and further away from each other

68
00:05:31,117 –> 00:05:33,480
because of fragmentation by clearcutting.

69
00:05:33,840 –> 00:05:40,080
Sweden has about 23 million hectares
of productive forest

70
00:05:40,680 –> 00:05:44,560
and then an additional 5 million hectares
of unproductive forest.

71
00:05:45,000 –> 00:05:46,150
The unproductive forest, actually,

72
00:05:46,420 –> 00:05:49,000
as the name says it does not
produce wood very much.

73
00:05:49,230 –> 00:05:53,600
So of the 23 million hectares, about eight
to ten percent, depending on how you count

74
00:05:53,720 –> 00:05:57,880
have been set aside for conservation
and the rest is managed for wood production.

75
00:05:58,080 –> 00:05:59,160
And this is what it looks like.

76
00:05:59,280 –> 00:06:03,302
But the short term profitable clearcut method
of the Swedish model is

77
00:06:03,402 –> 00:06:07,320
generally disliked by the general public.
So to shift the opinion,

78
00:06:07,520 –> 00:06:10,440
persuasion has been launched
by the forest industry

79
00:06:10,600 –> 00:06:12,840
since the dawn of the modern
media landscape.

80
00:06:13,160 –> 00:06:18,320
To maintain our advanced position
on the pulp and paper market,

81
00:06:18,570 –> 00:06:21,840
we have an extensive research activity.

82
00:06:22,320 –> 00:06:26,440
Talking points change over time.
And today these PR strategies

83
00:06:26,550 –> 00:06:28,840
are more aggressive
than ever before.

84
00:06:28,964 –> 00:06:31,772
Currently a number of claims are
particularly frequent in the

85
00:06:31,872 –> 00:06:35,160
forest industry’s marketing and
lobbying campaigns.

86
00:06:35,600 –> 00:06:39,800
So let’s investigate the most common
claims one by one.

87
00:06:45,651 –> 00:06:50,400
Old natural forests store huge amounts of
carbon in plants and in the ground.

88
00:06:50,560 –> 00:06:54,520
Research shows that old-growth forests
continues to sequestrate carbon

89
00:06:54,591 –> 00:06:57,680
in trees and soil and the mycorrhizal networks.

90
00:06:58,000 –> 00:07:00,994
Old forests that are
not affected by disturbances

91
00:07:01,264 –> 00:07:04,320
contain the greatest carbon stock.

92
00:07:07,057 –> 00:07:11,764
Climate crisis awareness rises in society.
And consequently, one of the forest

93
00:07:11,864 –> 00:07:15,880
industry’s main talking points
is spinned around climate.

94
00:07:20,840 –> 00:07:24,994
Let’s examine the most common
forestry claims related to climate.

95
00:07:28,314 –> 00:07:32,240
Burning forest biomass for fuel
is not carbon neutral.

96
00:07:32,805 –> 00:07:36,680
When you cut down a tree and burn it for
energy in a power plant,

97
00:07:36,770 –> 00:07:40,874
it actually emits more CO2 than
when you are burning coal.

98
00:07:40,974 –> 00:07:44,424
Per megawatt hour, there is actually
a lot more CO2 coming out of the

99
00:07:44,524 –> 00:07:48,084
smoke stack when you burn wood.
So this is obviously a huge problem.

100
00:07:48,184 –> 00:07:51,744
How on earth can we be
treating this as instantaneously

101
00:07:51,844 –> 00:07:54,680
carbon neutral if it is emitting
more CO2 than coal?

102
00:07:55,173 –> 00:07:58,600
Well, the idea is that trees will
grow back eventually.

103
00:07:58,762 –> 00:08:04,800
This is the rationale that the EU is using for
treating bioenergy as carbon neutral essentially.

104
00:08:05,080 –> 00:08:06,600
But we don’t have that kind of time.

105
00:08:06,760 –> 00:08:10,040
We can’t wait 50, 100 years for trees to grow back.

106
00:08:10,280 –> 00:08:12,378
We need to stop emissions now.

107
00:08:12,726 –> 00:08:17,520
If we are to achieve the 1.5 degree C target,
the Paris agreement,

108
00:08:17,693 –> 00:08:22,760
then we have to reduce the emissions
by 40-45 percent by 2030.

109
00:08:22,930 –> 00:08:27,960
And if we burn forest products, then the
emissions will increase, not decrease.

110
00:08:28,156 –> 00:08:32,686
The organizations we have, in this
case, the forest companies,

111
00:08:33,676 –> 00:08:35,919
it takes quite a lot to perturb them.

112
00:08:36,045 –> 00:08:40,696
So they incorporate what is new into
their regime and their ideas,

113
00:08:41,026 –> 00:08:44,240
what comes as changing powers.

114
00:08:44,331 –> 00:08:46,066
Like the climate issue in this case.

115
00:08:46,546 –> 00:08:53,440
We can see that over time,
the forest policy, in a broad sense,

116
00:08:54,480 –> 00:08:58,960
has survived with this goal that
we are a raw material producing country.

117
00:08:59,160 –> 00:09:00,738
We should produce as much as possible and

118
00:09:00,838 –> 00:09:02,988
we have to get these spruces to
grow faster.

119
00:09:03,508 –> 00:09:08,398
But the arguments for this has
changed over time and now

120
00:09:08,448 –> 00:09:13,428
the climate benefits came to almost
be seen as something positive.

121
00:09:13,678 –> 00:09:15,178
The future target for

122
00:09:15,558 –> 00:09:21,960
Swedish forestry production is
to increase the level of production

123
00:09:22,160 –> 00:09:23,858
from where we are today.
And we think that we will

124
00:09:23,958 –> 00:09:28,800
be able to reach a 20% increase
until the year 2030.

125
00:09:31,008 –> 00:09:36,288
If we harvest forest and use
it as bioenergy we get

126
00:09:36,388 –> 00:09:41,178
both emissions of carbon dioxide and
reduced uptake of carbon dioxide,

127
00:09:41,598 –> 00:09:45,880
since we decrease the green area,
the area that carries out photosynthesis.

128
00:09:46,320 –> 00:09:48,458
So you do two wrongs, not only one wrong.

129
00:09:49,320 –> 00:09:54,428
People are watching in horror, as
forests in the Amazon, in Australia and

130
00:09:54,528 –> 00:09:57,608
in California burn. And they
understand immediately that

131
00:09:57,708 –> 00:10:01,478
burning forest adds carbon to
the atmosphere. But somehow

132
00:10:01,508 –> 00:10:05,468
policy makers have gotten it
into their heads that burning

133
00:10:05,568 –> 00:10:08,200
forest for fuel actually saves carbon.

134
00:10:08,399 –> 00:10:12,968
The regulations and the criteria that the EU
put in place going forward for biomass

135
00:10:13,448 –> 00:10:18,680
are really kind of Potemkin regulations.
They appear to be effective

136
00:10:18,800 –> 00:10:23,400
but in fact they were actually pretty much
written by the biomass industry.

137
00:10:24,120 –> 00:10:29,621
In 2018, a letter signed by 800
scientists was sent to the EU.

138
00:10:29,920 –> 00:10:34,400
The letter was put together
by a variety of scientists

139
00:10:34,560 –> 00:10:38,080
and then signed onto by 800 scientists

140
00:10:38,320 –> 00:10:41,828
to ask the EU to
dramatically constrain the

141
00:10:41,928 –> 00:10:45,458
amount of biomass that is being
used for renewable energy in the EU.

142
00:10:46,208 –> 00:10:48,080
But unfortunately they
did not listen.

143
00:10:51,305 –> 00:10:57,520
Well, the European Union spent in 2017,
over 6.5 billion Euro

144
00:10:57,699 –> 00:11:01,440
to pay people to cut down trees and
burn them in power plants.

145
00:11:01,570 –> 00:11:05,830
And that is actually not even the
whole amount that was spent

146
00:11:05,930 –> 00:11:08,590
when all of the subsidies are
taken into consideration.

147
00:11:08,690 –> 00:11:10,440
So this is absolutely scandalous.

148
00:11:10,677 –> 00:11:14,090
That this environmentally damaging
paper industry is subsidized

149
00:11:14,190 –> 00:11:18,000
with 6-7 billion SEK per year
in order to get cheap electricity.

150
00:11:18,220 –> 00:11:26,800
That the industry pays a fraction of
the price that ordinary people are paying.

151
00:11:27,130 –> 00:11:28,870
It is quite scandalous really.

152
00:11:29,505 –> 00:11:33,850
A common claim for the forest industry’s
advertising campaigns is that wood can

153
00:11:33,950 –> 00:11:38,640
replace energy intensive materials.
The so-called substitution effect.

154
00:11:40,400 –> 00:11:43,240
Is this true, and will it save us from climate change?

155
00:11:43,465 –> 00:11:48,960
It is a myth that the harvested forest in Sweden
immediately becomes climate-smart products.

156
00:11:49,371 –> 00:11:53,040
”When the trees are finished growing, they are used
for climate-smart things and materials.”

157
00:11:53,480 –> 00:11:57,000
About 16 percent of
the harvest becomes sawn timber

158
00:11:57,190 –> 00:12:00,502
that can be built into houses in Sweden
or in other parts of the world

159
00:12:00,522 –> 00:12:02,752
and store the carbon over a longer period of time.

160
00:12:03,262 –> 00:12:08,480
The rest, perhaps 80-85 percent, is released
fairly quickly to the atmosphere again

161
00:12:08,680 –> 00:12:11,932
as carbon dioxide. And it
has the same effect as

162
00:12:11,992 –> 00:12:13,492
the burning of fossil fuels.

163
00:12:13,852 –> 00:12:16,942
It is not possible to distinguish between green
and black carbon dioxide molecules.

164
00:12:17,392 –> 00:12:19,760
The atmosphere makes no difference in that case.

165
00:12:20,010 –> 00:12:24,400
And besides, how many things are we going to ask forests to provide?

166
00:12:25,000 –> 00:12:27,742
So forest is supposed to substitute for fossil fuels.

167
00:12:27,842 –> 00:12:32,200
They are supposed to substitute for concrete, steel.

168
00:12:32,480 –> 00:12:34,312
We only have so many forests.

169
00:12:35,152 –> 00:12:39,162
“It is a pleasant and beautiful forest but it no longer
provides a climate benefit in its current state.”

170
00:12:39,556 –> 00:12:43,842
In the quest for turning natural forests into
products, the forest industry

171
00:12:43,942 –> 00:12:47,512
often claims that old-growth
forest sequestrate less carbon

172
00:12:47,612 –> 00:12:50,812
than plantations and therefore
should be cut down and replaced.

173
00:12:51,202 –> 00:12:55,642
It is true that young trees do
store carbon at a higher rate, but

174
00:12:55,772 –> 00:12:59,332
old forests already contain a
lot of carbon and cutting old

175
00:12:59,432 –> 00:13:02,784
forests and liquidating that
carbon represents an enormous

176
00:13:02,884 –> 00:13:05,240
emission of carbon to the atmosphere.

177
00:13:05,618 –> 00:13:11,600
As well, old forests actually do store a lot of
carbon and the science is clear on this now.

178
00:13:11,920 –> 00:13:13,844
It is just a few years ago
that we realized that

179
00:13:13,944 –> 00:13:17,784
the mycorrhiza fungi, the
dead part of the hyphae, they

180
00:13:17,884 –> 00:13:21,444
contribute significantly to the
sequestration of carbon in soil.

181
00:13:21,564 –> 00:13:26,720
I mean in old-growth forests,
it is in the range of 40 to 50 percent

182
00:13:27,120 –> 00:13:29,800
of the long stored carbon
that originate for fungi.

183
00:13:30,034 –> 00:13:34,824
On a global level, the terrestrial
ecosystem stands for about one third

184
00:13:34,924 –> 00:13:39,804
of the sink that exists.
This counteracts

185
00:13:39,814 –> 00:13:41,560
what ends up in the atmosphere.

186
00:13:41,810 –> 00:13:46,000
Today, the trees are felled when they are relatively young.

187
00:13:46,084 –> 00:13:51,840
But they have not stopped growing considering that
a Scots pine can become 500-600 years old

188
00:13:52,000 –> 00:13:54,000
and then it still continues to grow.

189
00:13:54,250 –> 00:13:56,280
And no life cycle assessment has been made,

190
00:13:56,376 –> 00:13:59,704
which shows how large (in diameter)
a tree must be in order to,

191
00:13:59,804 –> 00:14:02,796
from a climate point of view,
allow felling.

192
00:14:03,366 –> 00:14:08,400
But even if the case would be
that the old-growth forest halts,

193
00:14:08,581 –> 00:14:13,476
considering that we have until 2030
to meet the 1.5 degree C target,

194
00:14:13,626 –> 00:14:18,200
it is wrong to cut them down because there is not
enough time for new plants to come up until then.

195
00:14:18,456 –> 00:14:19,866
They do not have time to absorb the carbon.

196
00:14:20,286 –> 00:14:22,506
It is too late to discuss in
such ways.

197
00:14:23,176 –> 00:14:24,760
It is a new time now.

198
00:14:25,436 –> 00:14:30,520
The science is conclusive that older forests
continue to store carbon for centuries.

199
00:14:30,826 –> 00:14:35,680
And this idea that only young forests
store carbon is actually an industry myth.

200
00:14:36,175 –> 00:14:40,976
The Swedish forestry industry, is not being
penalized for the billions of tons of

201
00:14:40,976 –> 00:14:43,920
carbon that was locked up in old-growth forests

202
00:14:44,040 –> 00:14:46,166
that were scraped away and destroyed

203
00:14:46,256 –> 00:14:49,120
for plantations to be put in their place.

204
00:14:49,305 –> 00:14:54,160
And now they want to take credit for these
young, fast growing trees

205
00:14:54,338 –> 00:14:57,000
as representing carbon sequestration.

206
00:14:57,349 –> 00:15:02,124
It is really kind of a shell game where
you have got the pea under the shell

207
00:15:02,167 –> 00:15:03,480
and you are moving it around.

208
00:15:03,584 –> 00:15:06,482
It tricks policymakers,
but it does not trick the climate.

209
00:15:06,732 –> 00:15:10,232
In addition to CO2 emitted
from burning forest products

210
00:15:10,482 –> 00:15:14,720
the clearcut itself releases even more
powerful greenhouse gases.

211
00:15:14,889 –> 00:15:18,200
Clearcuts leak large amounts of
carbon dioxide and that is what

212
00:15:18,338 –> 00:15:20,408
is happening in the harvested area
now during the coming years.

213
00:15:20,678 –> 00:15:25,928
The critical years where we should
reduce the emissions by 45 percent

214
00:15:26,048 –> 00:15:30,790
by 2030, and this will continue
to leak perhaps until then.

215
00:15:31,662 –> 00:15:36,118
This is what we try to get a better grip
of with this modern technology

216
00:15:36,218 –> 00:15:41,558
where we can measure with a very high
time resolution, every half hour we can

217
00:15:41,704 –> 00:15:46,352
tell how much carbon dioxide that has been taken up
or been emitted from a forest like this,

218
00:15:47,280 –> 00:15:52,028
and there we have seen
that clearcuts emit

219
00:15:52,128 –> 00:15:54,900
a lot of carbon dioxide for
quite a long time.

220
00:15:55,968 –> 00:16:00,400
So above all, the soil has great
potential to continue to store.

221
00:16:00,680 –> 00:16:03,280
If you then cut down the forest
and make a clearcut like this,

222
00:16:03,580 –> 00:16:07,320
then you start the emissions immediately.

223
00:16:10,410 –> 00:16:14,780
We do have an annual emission
today from the forestry of

224
00:16:14,790 –> 00:16:19,760
perhaps 83 million to 85 million tonnes of
carbon dioxide from direct emissions.

225
00:16:19,925 –> 00:16:23,480
It is biofuels that are being burnt,
black liquor for example.

226
00:16:24,246 –> 00:16:27,930
This can be compared with Sweden’s
other total emissions.

227
00:16:28,320 –> 00:16:33,870
Traffic, communications, international flights
including high altitude effect,

228
00:16:34,140 –> 00:16:36,600
which approximately is 63 million tonnes CO2-EQ.

229
00:16:36,850 –> 00:16:41,920
So the forest industry itself has
significantly higher emissions

230
00:16:42,080 –> 00:16:45,680
than the other climate emissions in Sweden.

231
00:16:45,870 –> 00:16:47,220
Why is that not discussed?

232
00:16:47,490 –> 00:16:49,381
Why is that not reported?

233
00:16:50,040 –> 00:16:54,640
Well, the fact is that the forest
in Sweden continues to accumulate

234
00:16:54,760 –> 00:16:59,118
and that we have a net storage of carbon
in Sweden because of this.

235
00:16:59,370 –> 00:17:05,512
But the thing is, if we would
not log, then this uptake

236
00:17:06,002 –> 00:17:07,922
would increase immensely.

237
00:17:08,312 –> 00:17:13,052
Per invested SEK, it would be
incredibly economically defensible

238
00:17:13,262 –> 00:17:16,522
compared to everything else that we
would change in society

239
00:17:16,682 –> 00:17:18,732
in order to reduce the emissions
of greenhouse gases.

240
00:17:19,472 –> 00:17:22,532
Because it is such a small part
of the economy, but at the same time

241
00:17:22,632 –> 00:17:27,760
Sweden could contribute internationally in a
completely different way than we do today.

242
00:17:28,043 –> 00:17:33,000
And in fact, what the climate modeling shows
is that the best and highest use of forests

243
00:17:33,265 –> 00:17:38,320
is to grow them and restore
them and use reforestation

244
00:17:38,440 –> 00:17:43,040
and afforestation, carefully, with
natural forest, not plantations

245
00:17:43,120 –> 00:17:46,092
and restore existing forests, so that they

246
00:17:46,192 –> 00:17:50,012
store more carbon and provide
habitat. Because one of the

247
00:17:50,112 –> 00:17:54,120
things that seems to be missed
in this whole conversation very often

248
00:17:54,280 –> 00:17:57,062
is that we are also in the
middle of a biodiversity crisis,

249
00:17:57,122 –> 00:17:59,040
not just a climate crisis.

250
00:18:06,095 –> 00:18:13,000
Biodiversity is the species, the habitat they live in
and the process that maintains their habitat.

251
00:18:13,360 –> 00:18:16,944
Biodiversity is the basis
for functioning ecosystems

252
00:18:17,004 –> 00:18:20,784
and functioning ecosystems are
the basis for human survival.

253
00:18:21,114 –> 00:18:25,360
Therefore biodiversity loss is considered
one of the planetary boundaries.

254
00:18:25,760 –> 00:18:28,314
Millions of years of
evolution has created the

255
00:18:28,314 –> 00:18:31,600
complex ecosystems of natural forests.

256
00:18:31,808 –> 00:18:37,164
Most of the biological processes occur through
species we usually do not see or think of.

257
00:18:41,664 –> 00:18:45,414
Since the clearcut forestry took
off in the 1950s, people and

258
00:18:45,514 –> 00:18:49,160
scientists have stressed the
importance of nature consideration,

259
00:18:49,480 –> 00:18:52,434
and consequently, the forest industry focuses much

260
00:18:52,554 –> 00:18:55,800
of its PR and image creating on that.

261
00:19:10,040 –> 00:19:11,840
Important decisions have been made

262
00:19:12,040 –> 00:19:15,236
to slow the loss of
biodiversity and experts have

263
00:19:15,336 –> 00:19:17,840
pointed out how much we need to protect.

264
00:19:17,976 –> 00:19:22,586
From the Aichi targets under the
UN convention on biological diversity,

265
00:19:22,719 –> 00:19:27,680
to researchers who suggest that half the earth
needs to be excluded from exploitation.

266
00:19:28,080 –> 00:19:29,606
Sweden is committed to achieve

267
00:19:29,636 –> 00:19:32,680
various UN Aichi targets by 2020.

268
00:19:32,907 –> 00:19:35,720
Forestry should ensure biodiversity.

269
00:19:35,818 –> 00:19:41,520
And at least 17% of ecologically
representative areas must be preserved.

270
00:19:42,040 –> 00:19:45,320
According to the forest industry and
some politicians in Sweden,

271
00:19:45,560 –> 00:19:47,767
we have already protected more than enough.

272
00:19:47,966 –> 00:19:52,520
But leading scientists say that Sweden is
far from reaching the targets.

273
00:19:52,790 –> 00:19:54,160
So what is true?

274
00:19:54,397 –> 00:19:59,426
I took part in a global study about 10
years ago when we compared the

275
00:19:59,696 –> 00:20:03,116
retained amount in different
countries. And at that time, the

276
00:20:03,216 –> 00:20:08,426
Swedish statistics showed that
the retained area in Sweden

277
00:20:08,526 –> 00:20:11,880
was very low. So we were
in the bottom group.

278
00:20:12,085 –> 00:20:16,485
When the international comparison showed
Sweden was in the bottom group globally,

279
00:20:16,760 –> 00:20:21,562
the influential Swedish forest industry
called for new ways to count.

280
00:20:22,160 –> 00:20:23,560
And that is what happened.

281
00:20:23,871 –> 00:20:27,296
Instead of giving real protection to
natural forests, the industry

282
00:20:27,396 –> 00:20:30,656
started playing with figures and
mixing different concepts to

283
00:20:30,756 –> 00:20:33,716
make it look like Sweden has
achieved its protection goals.

284
00:20:33,931 –> 00:20:37,526
So now you can also add nature
considerations on clearcuts

285
00:20:37,601 –> 00:20:40,876
and you can add low productive
areas. Usually, they are mires

286
00:20:40,976 –> 00:20:44,760
or raised bogs. So there are
two stories, two narratives.

287
00:20:44,928 –> 00:20:48,161
One which I would say is correct
from a conservation biology point of view

288
00:20:48,920 –> 00:20:52,840
and there is a narrative
that wants to maximize how much

289
00:20:53,056 –> 00:20:56,760
we do not use for production. But
actually, not using for production

290
00:20:56,800 –> 00:20:58,880
can be interpreted as protected.

291
00:20:59,130 –> 00:21:01,760
And of course, if you include more categories

292
00:21:01,913 –> 00:21:06,520
then you have protected more.
Creative bookkeeping.

293
00:21:06,873 –> 00:21:12,367
The forest industry claims that more than 30 percent
of the Swedish forests are protected

294
00:21:12,458 –> 00:21:16,268
or exempt from forestry. But let us
examine their figures deeper.

295
00:21:16,628 –> 00:21:20,440
About 6 percent are so-called
consideration on clear cuts.

296
00:21:20,528 –> 00:21:24,040
However, most of these areas do
not actually exist today.

297
00:21:24,218 –> 00:21:26,320
The figure is based on two things:

298
00:21:26,498 –> 00:21:30,560
1. New areas will be set aside to the
same extent in the future.

299
00:21:30,741 –> 00:21:35,160
2. Old areas will remain untouched
in all future harvesting.

300
00:21:35,323 –> 00:21:39,040
To have this realised in the entire landscape
it actually takes a rotation time.

301
00:21:39,140 –> 00:21:41,720
So it takes 80 or 100 years for this to happen.

302
00:21:42,119 –> 00:21:48,188
16.7 percent is made up of low productive tree bearing
rocky surfaces, mires and bogs.

303
00:21:48,338 –> 00:21:51,428
Uninteresting for forestry
because they are low yielding.

304
00:21:51,488 –> 00:21:54,480
Most of these areas are not
included in the formally

305
00:21:54,518 –> 00:21:58,568
protected forest land. These
lands are not representative of

306
00:21:58,640 –> 00:22:02,050
the forest habitats found on
productive land and do not have

307
00:22:02,089 –> 00:22:06,280
the same high species diversity
as productive natural forests.

308
00:22:06,499 –> 00:22:11,000
So it is not honest to include
this when you count how much has

309
00:22:11,050 –> 00:22:14,640
been protected in Sweden, then you
should focus on the productive area.

310
00:22:14,960 –> 00:22:17,820
4.3 percent is an estimate of unprotected

311
00:22:17,920 –> 00:22:20,830
so-called voluntary set aside areas.

312
00:22:20,980 –> 00:22:25,360
No comprehensive maps or exact
data are available for these areas.

313
00:22:25,720 –> 00:22:28,870
This figure is relatively
irrelevant, since forest owners

314
00:22:28,870 –> 00:22:34,400
can set aside forests one day, then change
their minds and cut it down the next.

315
00:22:34,600 –> 00:22:39,480
The last 3.9 percent consists of formally
protected forest land.

316
00:22:39,600 –> 00:22:42,000
So how much is really protected?

317
00:22:42,000 –> 00:22:46,600
If you consider all forest, including
low productive forest land

318
00:22:46,600 –> 00:22:51,000
and sub-alpine woodlands, the figure of
formally protected forests is 9 percent.

319
00:22:51,000 –> 00:22:55,240
Only 6 percent of the productive
forest land has formal protection.

320
00:22:55,240 –> 00:22:57,850
And in the vast majority of
Sweden’s forest land,

321
00:22:57,850 –> 00:23:01,722
outside the mountain
region, the figure is as low as 3.5 percent.

322
00:23:01,822 –> 00:23:06,920
If this is Sweden. It is a tall country.
We have the mountains in the north

323
00:23:07,240 –> 00:23:09,640
and below that we have
productive forests.

324
00:23:10,184 –> 00:23:14,442
And the convention for biodiversity
talks about setting aside,

325
00:23:15,402 –> 00:23:19,840
protecting in some way at least 17 percent.

326
00:23:20,643 –> 00:23:25,800
In Sweden, if we look at the situation
below the mountains,

327
00:23:26,206 –> 00:23:31,200
we have set aside through formal protection
and voluntary set-asides,

328
00:23:31,332 –> 00:23:33,920
about 7 to 9 percent depending on the region.

329
00:23:34,070 –> 00:23:36,400
Which means that there is 8 percentage points left.

330
00:23:36,720 –> 00:23:40,960
So the gap that we need to fill by landscape restoration
would be 8 to 10 percentage points.

331
00:23:41,360 –> 00:23:43,240
Again, Sweden.

332
00:23:44,202 –> 00:23:48,160
The convention on biodiversity does not
talk only about numbers,

333
00:23:48,266 –> 00:23:50,400
but it talks about functionality.

334
00:23:50,520 –> 00:23:55,080
So, do patches of voluntary set-aside
and formally protected areas

335
00:23:55,160 –> 00:23:58,280
actually form a network of
habitat that works with species?

336
00:23:58,674 –> 00:24:00,920
Of course, this is a very rough estimate,

337
00:24:01,000 –> 00:24:05,944
but if you think about
what is actually functional,

338
00:24:06,784 –> 00:24:09,000
it is very hard to set exact figures

339
00:24:09,240 –> 00:24:11,800
but it is much less. It is a few percent,

340
00:24:12,120 –> 00:24:15,360
which means that the
gap becomes even bigger.

341
00:24:15,860 –> 00:24:19,232
So, the challenge now is actually to
work with landscape restoration,

342
00:24:19,294 –> 00:24:23,674
to recreate habitat and to do
this in a spatially explicit way,

343
00:24:23,774 –> 00:24:27,080
so you maximize functionality.

344
00:24:27,853 –> 00:24:32,198
“We set aside 20 percent of our forest land
for nature conservation,

345
00:24:32,320 –> 00:24:34,468
and that is in different scales.

346
00:24:34,720 –> 00:24:37,534
But the rest of the forest, the 80 percent we will

347
00:24:37,608 –> 00:24:41,800
use very efficiently and in a
long-term sustainable way.”

348
00:24:50,164 –> 00:24:55,142
If we look at the plans that exist for the future,
how the forest will be transformed,

349
00:24:55,319 –> 00:24:59,979
we may end up with perhaps 60 percent,
which will be monocultures of pine trees.

350
00:25:00,280 –> 00:25:05,440
For southern Sweden, it is Norway spruce that is
planted in monoculture stands.

351
00:25:05,680 –> 00:25:09,167
Conifer monocultures off to the horizon.

352
00:25:09,306 –> 00:25:12,636
There, rapid measures are needed to
stop this.

353
00:25:13,406 –> 00:25:17,216
With today’s slow rate of protection
and rapid rate of logging,

354
00:25:17,332 –> 00:25:20,696
research has estimated that
virtually all unprotected

355
00:25:20,796 –> 00:25:24,116
continuity forests in the
Northern two thirds of Sweden

356
00:25:24,476 –> 00:25:27,760
will be gone within just
a couple of decades.

357
00:25:27,955 –> 00:25:32,911
Then we have replaced our natural heritage
with biofuels, disposable paper and cardboard.

358
00:25:33,266 –> 00:25:38,906
The Swedish red list is an
assessment of the relative risk

359
00:25:39,116 –> 00:25:43,240
of species to go extinct in Sweden.

360
00:25:43,503 –> 00:25:47,600
The main reason for a species being red-listed

361
00:25:47,798 –> 00:25:53,873
is the extensive forestry that we see today,
which causes the loss of habitat,

362
00:25:54,080 –> 00:25:58,293
structures and substrates
that species require.

363
00:25:58,480 –> 00:26:03,025
And basically we see a
transformation of ancient woodlands

364
00:26:03,091 –> 00:26:05,160
to industrial stands.

365
00:26:06,000 –> 00:26:09,722
Well, it is obvious that the area
of more natural,

366
00:26:09,880 –> 00:26:11,718
what we call high conservation value forest,

367
00:26:11,880 –> 00:26:16,108
is too low to secure the
forest species in general

368
00:26:16,231 –> 00:26:19,367
and of course, in particular
those species that are demanding.

369
00:26:19,480 –> 00:26:22,520
We can take a look at the
development of the

370
00:26:22,618 –> 00:26:26,674
Swedish red list of threatened
species. And we can take a look

371
00:26:26,758 –> 00:26:31,114
on the national reports to the EU.
They all point in the same direction,

372
00:26:31,240 –> 00:26:35,209
that the situation is not getting better.
It is actually getting worse over time.

373
00:26:35,442 –> 00:26:38,880
The boreal trees, they rely to
almost a hundred percent

374
00:26:39,000 –> 00:26:42,894
on the mycorrhizal fungi for their
nutrient and water uptake.

375
00:26:43,040 –> 00:26:45,681
Almost every species we pick in the forest,

376
00:26:45,840 –> 00:26:48,528
they are mycorrhizal fungi,
and that is due to that

377
00:26:48,628 –> 00:26:51,880
they get the sugar from the trees

378
00:26:52,001 –> 00:26:55,120
and thereby they can produce
large spore cups.

379
00:26:55,322 –> 00:27:00,960
So we are talking about 2,000 different species
of which the majority are rare.

380
00:27:01,100 –> 00:27:06,480
They are to 100 percent dependent on this symbiosis with the trees.

381
00:27:06,848 –> 00:27:10,197
So when the trees are cut,
the sugar flows down to the root system

382
00:27:10,480 –> 00:27:15,752
and the energy supply to the fungi is cut off.

383
00:27:16,011 –> 00:27:17,880
So they disappear.

384
00:27:18,205 –> 00:27:22,160
They will survive on the roots of the stumps
for about a year,

385
00:27:22,353 –> 00:27:25,840
depending on how dry the conditions are.
And then they die.

386
00:27:26,103 –> 00:27:29,480
Basically clearcutting, when all
trees are cut down,

387
00:27:29,581 –> 00:27:36,165
results in every single mycorrhizal fungi, all the mycelium,
everything that is in the soil is gone.

388
00:27:37,320 –> 00:27:40,310
10 percent of the ectomycorrhizal
species in Sweden, for example,

389
00:27:40,424 –> 00:27:44,210
are red-listed. And that is
mainly due to clear cutting and

390
00:27:44,356 –> 00:27:47,870
that old-growth forest that has
had the continuity and where the

391
00:27:48,080 –> 00:27:52,766
normally long lived mycelia of individual
species that can stay on the same spot

392
00:27:52,910 –> 00:27:57,280
for probably a century or many centuries.

393
00:27:57,438 –> 00:28:02,112
They disappear at a time of clearcutting
and the likeliness for them to

394
00:28:02,242 –> 00:28:06,400
reestablish is almost non-existent.

395
00:28:06,825 –> 00:28:12,846
As scientists emphasize the importance of
mixed forest and deciduous trees for biodiversity,

396
00:28:13,000 –> 00:28:17,006
the forest industry catches on
and markets a number of claims.

397
00:28:17,120 –> 00:28:19,839
One is that we have more
deciduous trees nowadays.

398
00:28:19,960 –> 00:28:22,541
If this is true,
is it a merit of the forestry?

399
00:28:22,752 –> 00:28:29,893
From the 1950s until the end of the 1970s,
we used herbicides in Sweden

400
00:28:30,000 –> 00:28:32,442
and especially in Northern Sweden
on a very large scale.

401
00:28:32,712 –> 00:28:36,492
That was connected to the era of
the start of the clearcutting.

402
00:28:36,732 –> 00:28:41,712
So we used airplanes
spraying with herbicides,

403
00:28:41,742 –> 00:28:46,160
2,4-D and 2,4,5-T, in Sweden called Hormoslyr,

404
00:28:46,315 –> 00:28:48,960
in North America called Agent Orange.

405
00:28:49,402 –> 00:28:53,080
And it was sprayed over enormous areas northern Sweden,

406
00:28:53,215 –> 00:28:55,400
just to get rid of the deciduous trees.

407
00:28:55,960 –> 00:29:00,439
And when that stopped, the deciduous trees
started to come back again.

408
00:29:00,560 –> 00:29:03,234
But as you understand, it is from a very low level.

409
00:29:04,920 –> 00:29:08,300
And if we go a little bit further back in time
during the World Wars,

410
00:29:08,480 –> 00:29:11,506
a lot of the deciduous forest
was cut in Northern Sweden,

411
00:29:11,680 –> 00:29:14,652
and in Sweden in general, because
it was used as fuel wood

412
00:29:14,880 –> 00:29:18,122
during the times of fuel scarcity
during the Wars.

413
00:29:18,304 –> 00:29:20,534
Luckily, the deciduous trees are coming back,

414
00:29:20,670 –> 00:29:24,824
but they are not at all in
the range of what we had

415
00:29:25,120 –> 00:29:28,000
earlier in history in Sweden.

416
00:29:28,719 –> 00:29:34,040
Some of the most important structures in a forest
are the really big trees

417
00:29:34,215 –> 00:29:37,715
and the really old trees and the dead wood.

418
00:29:37,975 –> 00:29:40,080
And the dead wood in different stages.

419
00:29:40,339 –> 00:29:45,200
As the understanding of dead woods importance
for biodiversity increases,

420
00:29:45,362 –> 00:29:47,960
the forest industry is quick to follow.

421
00:29:48,276 –> 00:29:51,360
The volume of dead wood in the forest,

422
00:29:51,560 –> 00:29:56,194
and I am talking more specifically
about the Northern part of Sweden,

423
00:29:56,320 –> 00:30:01,064
it decreased a lot at the beginning
of the 1900s.

424
00:30:01,240 –> 00:30:04,674
We had very large volumes
of dead wood in the forest

425
00:30:04,774 –> 00:30:07,800
before the year 1900.

426
00:30:07,963 –> 00:30:11,227
We had much, much more dead wood in
the forest than we have today.

427
00:30:11,485 –> 00:30:15,618
The curve looks like a very advanced slope like this.

428
00:30:15,967 –> 00:30:20,184
So we see in northernmost Sweden that we actually
have a decline in the volume of dead wood

429
00:30:20,381 –> 00:30:27,442
and a large fraction of the increase of dead wood
happened in the last decade,

430
00:30:27,552 –> 00:30:29,544
actually was associated with a number of

431
00:30:29,680 –> 00:30:31,956
major storm events in
southernmost Sweden.

432
00:30:32,140 –> 00:30:34,280
That is where we see the main increase.

433
00:30:34,610 –> 00:30:38,240
We are now around eight to nine
cubic meters per hectare

434
00:30:38,371 –> 00:30:44,999
and that is to be compared with perhaps 80 to 100
cubic meter per hectare in natural forest condition.

435
00:30:45,440 –> 00:30:48,094
And as the forest industry
has noticed biologists

436
00:30:48,209 –> 00:30:52,672
and scientists emphasizing the importance
of old-growth forest for biodiversity,

437
00:30:52,760 –> 00:30:56,628
they now also market the idea that we have
more old forests than a hundred years ago.

438
00:30:57,268 –> 00:31:03,320
When we define old forests today, we are just talking
about trees exceeding a certain age.

439
00:31:03,416 –> 00:31:06,446
Most of the time you are talking
about forest older than 150 years

440
00:31:06,609 –> 00:31:10,280
or 160 years. Or sometimes
even 120 years.

441
00:31:10,593 –> 00:31:14,680
And that is not an old forest from
an ecological perspective.

442
00:31:14,929 –> 00:31:19,520
The Scots pine can be up to a thousand years old.

443
00:31:20,018 –> 00:31:23,840
So, if we look at the forest from such a perspective,

444
00:31:23,880 –> 00:31:29,071
we had much, much more really old forest,
a hundred years ago than we have today.

445
00:31:29,774 –> 00:31:33,960
We can also show that the
numbers of large trees

446
00:31:34,139 –> 00:31:38,084
were much, much higher. And especially when we
are talking about really large trees.

447
00:31:38,183 –> 00:31:42,085
And of course the really
large trees are most often very old.

448
00:31:42,400 –> 00:31:45,989
We had fairly large
numbers of really large trees

449
00:31:46,120 –> 00:31:48,804
all over the forest before the exploitation.

450
00:31:48,980 –> 00:31:54,211
And if we compare it to today, we are not
even close to those numbers today.

451
00:31:54,800 –> 00:31:57,806
The Swedish Forest Agency
is a national authority

452
00:31:57,893 –> 00:32:01,566
responsible for control and
review of notions for logging.

453
00:32:01,759 –> 00:32:07,166
In a much criticised decision, Herman Sundqvist,
a representative of the forestry,

454
00:32:07,320 –> 00:32:09,240
was appointed Director General.

455
00:32:09,388 –> 00:32:12,835
The Agency then stopped conducting
inventories of woodland key habitats

456
00:32:12,952 –> 00:32:14,680
in Northwestern Sweden.

457
00:32:14,833 –> 00:32:17,480
Now the Agency has declared it will also stop

458
00:32:17,566 –> 00:32:20,640
registering key habitats for felling notified forests.

459
00:32:20,760 –> 00:32:25,659
A decision heavily criticized even by
officials within the Agency itself.

460
00:32:25,948 –> 00:32:28,880
This basically paves the way for clearcutting

461
00:32:29,016 –> 00:32:33,357
without consideration of indicator species
and red-listed species.

462
00:32:33,572 –> 00:32:35,010
The problem does not stop there.

463
00:32:35,368 –> 00:32:39,138
Other types of impact apply,
for example, to watercourses.

464
00:32:39,538 –> 00:32:44,498
Large emissions through ditching, clearcutting,
this soil preparation can

465
00:32:44,654 –> 00:32:49,829
cause leakage of mercury that
has been deposited for a long time

466
00:32:49,960 –> 00:32:51,760
from atmospheric precipitation.

467
00:32:52,108 –> 00:32:56,400
If it is done near watercourses, you can
get a methylation that also affects fish.

468
00:32:57,188 –> 00:32:59,720
Another problem related to forest floor damage

469
00:32:59,840 –> 00:33:04,166
is transport wounds by logging harvesters and forwarders.

470
00:33:04,580 –> 00:33:11,205
You get such these severe soil damages
and it is allowed according to Swedish law.

471
00:33:11,450 –> 00:33:15,740
At the same time, we have legislation stating that
you are not allowed to drive off-road vehicles

472
00:33:15,840 –> 00:33:18,740
and damage the soil with
ATVs, for example.

473
00:33:19,700 –> 00:33:22,790
Discrepancies in the legislation that
are quite astonishing.

474
00:33:23,403 –> 00:33:27,800
Recently, the forest industry started to claim
that they no longer clearcut forests.

475
00:33:28,020 –> 00:33:32,810
“Large, bare clearcuts are not part of
the Swedish forestry model today.

476
00:33:33,000 –> 00:33:37,246
Of course you can find examples
with the right camera angle and stuff.”

477
00:33:37,464 –> 00:33:41,520
In an effort to improve public relations,
other terms are being used.

478
00:33:41,754 –> 00:33:46,800
In 2017, when state-owned forest company
Sveaskog clearcut Brännvinsberget,

479
00:33:47,000 –> 00:33:49,080
a unique natural old pine forest,

480
00:33:49,238 –> 00:33:51,600
it was called mosaic cutting.

481
00:33:55,200 –> 00:33:58,770
“We try to create forests that
tomorrow are even richer in

482
00:33:58,852 –> 00:34:00,712
biodiversity than we have today.”

483
00:34:03,433 –> 00:34:07,254
Nobody has so far shown that
this extensive forestry

484
00:34:07,440 –> 00:34:10,542
that we see today is
sustainable in the long run.

485
00:34:11,082 –> 00:34:15,822
Actually, we have models
that show that many species

486
00:34:15,940 –> 00:34:18,840
will continue to decline.

487
00:34:19,087 –> 00:34:22,199
Nobody has shown that it is a sustainable forestry.

488
00:34:25,172 –> 00:34:29,840
When it comes to safeguarding the
biological diversity,

489
00:34:30,056 –> 00:34:35,282
different species have different needs of
preserved habitats, which is living space.

490
00:34:36,722 –> 00:34:41,427
It varies, it can be up to 30 percent
and down to 10 percent for different species

491
00:34:41,800 –> 00:34:45,018
and we have already felled the
old forests to a large extent.

492
00:34:45,242 –> 00:34:47,520
There are only a few single percent left.

493
00:34:47,845 –> 00:34:53,312
So, it is about restoring
semi-natural forest back to the natural state.

494
00:34:53,701 –> 00:34:59,080
If you leave an area and let the
deciduous trees come in,

495
00:34:59,260 –> 00:35:01,920
you can create new values in a
couple of decades,

496
00:35:02,136 –> 00:35:05,675
but to create the old pine trees,
which are 350 years,

497
00:35:05,840 –> 00:35:07,680
actually it takes 350 years.

498
00:35:08,124 –> 00:35:12,134
And if you want the dead wood to it,
then you have to wait perhaps 500 years.

499
00:35:18,724 –> 00:35:24,284
Biodiverse forests are the basis for
many ecosystem services we all depend on.

500
00:35:24,520 –> 00:35:28,297
Pollination, soil formation,
water regulation and cleansing,

501
00:35:28,411 –> 00:35:32,731
climate regulation and
carbon storage, air purification etc.

502
00:35:32,840 –> 00:35:37,000
They provide us with food,
drinking water and much more.

503
00:35:40,596 –> 00:35:45,506
“In both agriculture and forestry, we clear
and thin out to ensure better growth.

504
00:35:45,662 –> 00:35:49,080
If we did not do that, the effect
would be the reverse.”

505
00:35:49,390 –> 00:35:54,258
Lobbyists from the Swedish forestry sometimes
claim that forests must be managed

506
00:35:54,440 –> 00:35:56,944
and that planted forest
deliver the same values and

507
00:35:57,088 –> 00:36:00,040
ecosystem services as natural forests.

508
00:36:00,699 –> 00:36:02,800
Let’s check with the scientists.

509
00:36:03,266 –> 00:36:05,966
90 percent is clearcut and planted.

510
00:36:06,296 –> 00:36:10,240
This gives increased risks of outbreaks by e.g.

511
00:36:10,346 –> 00:36:13,556
Gremmeniella on Scots pine,
root rot on Norway spruce.

512
00:36:14,186 –> 00:36:18,664
That is what will increase if
we get warmer, perhaps wetter climate.

513
00:36:19,517 –> 00:36:25,280
So in addition to the obvious benefits that
old-growth forests provide in terms of carbon storage,

514
00:36:25,359 –> 00:36:28,080
which can be massive, and biodiversity,

515
00:36:28,196 –> 00:36:33,080
they are also really important for
regulation of the water cycle.

516
00:36:33,248 –> 00:36:38,400
Forests hold a lot of water and they help
release water slowly over time.

517
00:36:38,504 –> 00:36:42,560
They protect the soil because they have
got a deep litter layer.

518
00:36:42,649 –> 00:36:45,760
They have not been scraped over by equipment.

519
00:36:46,326 –> 00:36:49,634
Last summer, there were quite a few fires,
and if we would have had

520
00:36:49,746 –> 00:36:54,715
lanes with more preserved deciduous trees
for example, and preserved more wetlands,

521
00:36:54,800 –> 00:36:59,296
had less ditching, this could stop
some of these fires.

522
00:36:59,769 –> 00:37:05,338
On a global scale, more frequent and intense wildfires
caused by climate change and mismanagement

523
00:37:05,438 –> 00:37:07,160
is a huge problem.

524
00:37:07,684 –> 00:37:12,541
but a normal frequency of fires is a natural
part of boreal forest dynamics.

525
00:37:13,160 –> 00:37:15,616
In an effort to defend the
practice of clearcutting

526
00:37:15,760 –> 00:37:20,596
the industry claims that clearcuts mimic
the natural disturbance of wildfires.

527
00:37:20,837 –> 00:37:25,860
There is a very big difference between
a clearcut area and a burned area

528
00:37:25,960 –> 00:37:29,226
and we can see this illustrated very
clearly here where we are.

529
00:37:29,390 –> 00:37:33,974
After a fire, the amount of
dead wood is very, very high.

530
00:37:34,240 –> 00:37:38,897
The second thing is that there is usually
quite a survival of living trees.

531
00:37:39,120 –> 00:37:44,272
And a third thing after fire, the soil
is usually totally black

532
00:37:44,360 –> 00:37:47,638
and open for colonisation of species.

533
00:37:48,668 –> 00:37:53,741
If we have these monocultures,
then these will be eliminated.

534
00:37:53,918 –> 00:37:57,683
It is not the case of if they will be eliminated,
they will be eliminated

535
00:37:57,883 –> 00:38:01,870
and it implies an economic
loss for the landowner.

536
00:38:02,200 –> 00:38:06,854
But the engine that can absorb carbon dioxide
from the atmosphere is also eliminated.

537
00:38:07,570 –> 00:38:08,620
Why is this being done?

538
00:38:08,900 –> 00:38:12,280
These are traditions. Old
traditions and stubborn

539
00:38:12,371 –> 00:38:14,620
opposition from the forest industry
against change.

540
00:38:15,670 –> 00:38:19,720
Research shows that they
are wrong about what is happening today.

541
00:38:24,840 –> 00:38:28,740
Protected natural forests, and
an ecosystem based management

542
00:38:28,860 –> 00:38:32,580
means more opportunities for a
larger variety of employment and

543
00:38:32,640 –> 00:38:37,490
multiple use such as reindeer husbandry,
ecotourism, timber,

544
00:38:37,550 –> 00:38:39,520
berry and mushroom harvesting.

545
00:38:40,000 –> 00:38:43,170
If forests are managed sustainably and not cut down,

546
00:38:43,280 –> 00:38:47,167
they are a great long-term asset
to society for generations.

547
00:38:49,600 –> 00:38:54,160
The forest industry often claims it is an important
part of the economy and job creation.

548
00:38:54,239 –> 00:38:58,400
“Swedish timber has created wealth in Sweden for a long time.”

549
00:38:58,490 –> 00:39:01,990
“Jobs do not grow on trees is what they usually say.
But in a way they do in Sweden

550
00:39:02,040 –> 00:39:03,540
thanks to the forestry industry.”

551
00:39:04,573 –> 00:39:06,880
So how much does it actually contribute?

552
00:39:07,352 –> 00:39:11,882
The importance of the forestry for the
Swedish economy has been big,

553
00:39:11,942 –> 00:39:14,432
but that it still would
be, is a myth.

554
00:39:15,152 –> 00:39:19,523
About 2-3 percent of GDP in
Sweden comes from the forest industry.

555
00:39:20,162 –> 00:39:25,352
The revenues for tax for Swedish
welfare if we include corporation tax,

556
00:39:25,862 –> 00:39:27,512
income tax and VAT.

557
00:39:27,992 –> 00:39:29,972
It is about 2 percent.

558
00:39:30,482 –> 00:39:36,760
That number does not include tax revenues
from earnings on shares.

559
00:39:37,142 –> 00:39:40,782
Because a large part of the money
is probably distributed in shares.

560
00:39:41,522 –> 00:39:44,402
We have a large net export revenue.

561
00:39:44,732 –> 00:39:47,432
It is about just over SEK 100
billion SEK per year.

562
00:39:48,222 –> 00:39:52,347
But the strange thing is that somewhere
along the way, this money disappears.

563
00:39:52,680 –> 00:39:55,982
If you subtract the
electricity subsidies, there will be

564
00:39:56,095 –> 00:40:00,440
a few billion that actually
goes into Swedish welfare.

565
00:40:00,632 –> 00:40:04,352
If you look at the jobs,
it is about 1.4 percent

566
00:40:04,452 –> 00:40:08,106
of the employees in Sweden
that work in the whole forest sector,

567
00:40:08,252 –> 00:40:12,162
about 70,000 people
of nearly 5 million people.

568
00:40:12,512 –> 00:40:16,982
Of these 70,000 people,
about 16,000 people

569
00:40:17,342 –> 00:40:22,718
actually work in the forest.
The rest work in industry and sawmills.

570
00:40:23,200 –> 00:40:28,376
And 16,000 people, that is roughly equivalent to the
municipal employees in a larger Swedish city.

571
00:40:28,990 –> 00:40:33,480
So before, the forestry
was important for the countryside when they

572
00:40:33,602 –> 00:40:36,122
had employees who
worked with chainsaws and so forth.

573
00:40:36,962 –> 00:40:38,792
But now this is gone.

574
00:40:39,362 –> 00:40:44,200
Then we also have other activities
in the forest that are negatively affected.

575
00:40:44,671 –> 00:40:48,545
Where we now stand is reindeer grazing land.
Here there were reindeer last winter

576
00:40:48,640 –> 00:40:52,549
and then the site was prepared by soil scarification
and a large part of the lichen is gone.

577
00:40:52,682 –> 00:40:57,000
Ground lichen, they depend on this
lichen for their grazing.

578
00:40:57,482 –> 00:41:02,818
If you calculate that since
the clearcutting and plantation forestry started,

579
00:41:03,040 –> 00:41:07,074
somewhere between 30 to
50 percent of the winter grazing land

580
00:41:07,234 –> 00:41:09,514
for reindeer has been lost.

581
00:41:09,698 –> 00:41:13,616
“Forestry also helps to preserve significant
national and cultural values

582
00:41:13,760 –> 00:41:17,133
and creates opportunities for indigenous peoples
to live and work.”

583
00:41:17,284 –> 00:41:26,360
These forests in the north are among the last remnants
of a former European forest cover

584
00:41:26,662 –> 00:41:30,248
and there would be
conditions for nature tourism,

585
00:41:30,520 –> 00:41:35,623
but the more you harvest
and convert forests into plantations,

586
00:41:35,794 –> 00:41:38,075
the worse the conditions will be.

587
00:41:38,260 –> 00:41:41,674
If you look at the employment within the total
tourism sector (incl. nature tourism) in Sweden,

588
00:41:41,804 –> 00:41:46,084
it is larger than the employment
in the forestry sector.

589
00:41:46,984 –> 00:41:49,994
It also has an approximately similar
share of GDP.

590
00:41:50,804 –> 00:41:55,024
So this is a future industry
that is really being destroyed

591
00:41:55,234 –> 00:41:58,474
in a way that causes major
environmental damages and climate impact.

592
00:42:03,592 –> 00:42:09,080
Multiple studies show that being in forests is highly
beneficial for physical and mental health.

593
00:42:09,343 –> 00:42:14,229
Natural, old-growth forests are perceived
as beautiful with their biodiversity,

594
00:42:14,320 –> 00:42:17,240
natural water streams and old trees.

595
00:42:17,916 –> 00:42:22,196
While dense managed tree stands or
clearcuts are perceived as uninviting.

596
00:42:23,505 –> 00:42:27,787
Consequently, forestry advertisements
often portray Swedish forestry

597
00:42:27,920 –> 00:42:30,778
with happy people in beautiful,
old-growth forests,

598
00:42:30,880 –> 00:42:36,062
hardly reflecting the reality of Sweden’s
industrial tree farm dominated landscape.

599
00:42:39,352 –> 00:42:43,080
This forest we see here,
it is moss on the ground,

600
00:42:43,316 –> 00:42:48,735
there are big trees, but they are in straight
lines, which indicates that they were planted.

601
00:42:49,040 –> 00:42:51,930
Societies’ evaluation of forest
changes over time.

602
00:42:52,073 –> 00:42:55,413
And of course, when the
forest industry started to grow,

603
00:42:55,680 –> 00:42:59,674
there was lots of wood in the forest.
The market was not saturated.

604
00:42:59,800 –> 00:43:02,480
And actually this
went on until the 1950s.

605
00:43:02,758 –> 00:43:07,209
So Swedish industry has been very,
very good and clever at making

606
00:43:07,318 –> 00:43:09,800
use of this wood, doing valuated products.

607
00:43:10,040 –> 00:43:12,280
And this is the strategy still today.

608
00:43:12,490 –> 00:43:16,240
But now the society’s values have changed
and we want more.

609
00:43:16,382 –> 00:43:18,320
And actually, when you look at the general citizen,

610
00:43:18,480 –> 00:43:22,401
they rank wood production and especially
energy wood very, very low.

611
00:43:22,640 –> 00:43:24,492
They want recreation. They want biodiversity,

612
00:43:24,640 –> 00:43:26,440
they want a nice forest to be in.

613
00:43:26,596 –> 00:43:31,395
And not even having to go there because it is
just the value that it exists is important to people.

614
00:43:32,368 –> 00:43:36,420
So consequently, the forest
industry strives to shift this attitude

615
00:43:36,604 –> 00:43:39,238
and spends millions on
targeting the general public

616
00:43:39,440 –> 00:43:43,560
when promoting forestry and
forest products, as something desirable.

617
00:43:43,693 –> 00:43:45,193
“Forestry, for a sustainable future.”

618
00:43:47,478 –> 00:43:49,698
”You can even make make-up of forest.”

619
00:43:49,931 –> 00:43:53,031
“The Swedish forest, where the future grows.”

620
00:44:03,420 –> 00:44:06,450
In an effort to sell the Swedish
forestry model as sustainable,

621
00:44:06,510 –> 00:44:09,870
the forest industry often claims
we have more forest than ever.

622
00:44:10,470 –> 00:44:13,500
“Is there any danger that we will
run out of forest? No…”

623
00:44:13,610 –> 00:44:17,750
”We can both store more carbon and we have
the opportunity to take out more.”

624
00:44:18,297 –> 00:44:22,884
How is this possible when more forest is logged
and the timber production has increased?

625
00:44:23,400 –> 00:44:27,770
For the most part, when we discuss
how the forest has changed in Sweden,

626
00:44:27,960 –> 00:44:31,160
we use the
national forest inventory

627
00:44:31,220 –> 00:44:35,920
and that started in 1923 and it was
published in 1932.

628
00:44:36,047 –> 00:44:42,480
The national forest inventory began
more than 60-70 years after intensive

629
00:44:42,640 –> 00:44:45,200
forest management began in
some parts of Sweden.

630
00:44:45,513 –> 00:44:51,560
Then in the boreal, the wood volume
has now come back to the

631
00:44:51,705 –> 00:44:54,080
situation in the 1850s.

632
00:44:54,258 –> 00:44:56,756
So those who say that the
wood volume has increased,

633
00:44:56,940 –> 00:44:59,830
that there was lots of
felled forest a long time ago,

634
00:45:00,010 –> 00:45:02,200
for the boreal forest,
this is not true.

635
00:45:02,640 –> 00:45:04,800
The 1920s is a time

636
00:45:04,992 –> 00:45:09,058
when we have had a commercial
exploitation of the forest

637
00:45:09,167 –> 00:45:12,680
for a long time, and when we built
up this forest industry,

638
00:45:12,821 –> 00:45:14,720
especially in Northern Sweden.

639
00:45:14,871 –> 00:45:18,899
So we had much more forest before 1920.

640
00:45:19,120 –> 00:45:23,082
In 1850, we had one of the richest
forests in terms of old trees

641
00:45:23,182 –> 00:45:26,292
and timber volume,
in all of Europe.

642
00:45:26,492 –> 00:45:28,822
Sveaskog: ”From a
historical perspective, we

643
00:45:28,922 –> 00:45:31,442
almost had deforested Sweden in the 1850s.”

644
00:45:31,698 –> 00:45:37,760
We had very old forest. We had
forest with very large Scots pine trees.

645
00:45:38,202 –> 00:45:41,960
The trees could be up to 500-600
years of age at that time.

646
00:45:42,047 –> 00:45:46,408
And this was an accumulated
forest resource that had been

647
00:45:46,542 –> 00:45:50,682
growing for many, many hundreds
of years and had developed

648
00:45:50,773 –> 00:45:55,585
and was at that time accessible for the
saw mill industry in Northern Sweden.

649
00:45:58,583 –> 00:46:00,820
So it seems like a forest industry myth

650
00:46:00,906 –> 00:46:03,156
that we have more forest
now than ever.

651
00:46:03,291 –> 00:46:05,482
But to examine the industry claims further,

652
00:46:05,566 –> 00:46:08,858
we need to ask ourselves again,
what is a forest?

653
00:46:09,234 –> 00:46:11,658
When discussing issues
like this it is important to be

654
00:46:11,794 –> 00:46:14,884
clear about the nomenclature,
that is, what you mean.

655
00:46:15,754 –> 00:46:20,680
In Sweden, tree covered areas
are usually divided into what

656
00:46:20,917 –> 00:46:23,824
is called cultural forest
and natural forest.

657
00:46:24,874 –> 00:46:28,640
And that is not in line with the
international division

658
00:46:28,794 –> 00:46:34,880
because internationally it is divided into three
different main types of tree covered areas.

659
00:46:35,080 –> 00:46:39,124
Natural forest, semi-
natural forest and plantations.

660
00:46:40,084 –> 00:46:44,120
In Sweden, people do not talk about
plantations even though we have plantations.

661
00:46:44,600 –> 00:46:50,068
And we in Sweden look
down on, for example,

662
00:46:50,164 –> 00:46:54,034
Southeast Asia where oil palm plantations
are planted,

663
00:46:54,189 –> 00:46:57,907
or Brazil where eucalyptus plantations are planted.

664
00:46:58,080 –> 00:46:59,920
But we do the exact same thing.

665
00:47:00,520 –> 00:47:05,076
But some how we get away with this
by calling it a cultural forest.

666
00:47:06,546 –> 00:47:11,006
In other words, we have plantations in
Sweden and to be aware of

667
00:47:11,136 –> 00:47:13,866
the negative effects is extremely important.

668
00:47:14,146 –> 00:47:18,399
A managed forest in Sweden
has two species of trees.

669
00:47:18,676 –> 00:47:20,160
long needles and short needles.

670
00:47:20,319 –> 00:47:21,863
Scots pine, and Norway spruce.

671
00:47:21,985 –> 00:47:25,485
The space for species in
a natural forest is very large,

672
00:47:25,793 –> 00:47:29,748
but the space for species in a
managed forest is very, very small.

673
00:47:30,440 –> 00:47:33,120
But now we are moving
into a situation where we are

674
00:47:33,246 –> 00:47:38,247
actually starting to clearcut forest
which were clearcut once in the past.

675
00:47:38,560 –> 00:47:41,442
We do not have much forest left,
which has never been clearcut.

676
00:47:41,680 –> 00:47:45,316
So we are losing that component
in the forest landscape.

677
00:47:50,994 –> 00:47:54,160
A common slogan to reinforce
the sustainable image

678
00:47:54,333 –> 00:47:58,265
of Swedish forestry is that we
plant more trees than we cut down.

679
00:47:58,446 –> 00:48:01,802
”We plant at least two new trees
for each that is felled.”

680
00:48:01,840 –> 00:48:04,309
“Three new trees are planted
for every one cut down.”

681
00:48:04,489 –> 00:48:07,989
“Two saplings are being planted for
every tree that is cut down.”

682
00:48:13,428 –> 00:48:17,778
The method for this is to
clearcut, scarify the soil.

683
00:48:18,258 –> 00:48:24,240
Then you buy plants from
the greenhouse and put them in rows.

684
00:48:24,798 –> 00:48:29,933
After about ten years, the naturally
regenerated trees are cleared away,

685
00:48:30,120 –> 00:48:32,066
down to about 10 percent.

686
00:48:32,698 –> 00:48:39,058
Therefore, it is reasonable to also
count these monocultures in Sweden,

687
00:48:39,348 –> 00:48:42,610
conifer monocultures for what they are:

688
00:48:42,880 –> 00:48:43,758
Tree plantations.

689
00:48:44,548 –> 00:48:47,640
So planted seedlings are not
planted to build a new forest,

690
00:48:47,848 –> 00:48:52,178
but to create a tree stand that can
be harvested again as soon as possible.

691
00:48:52,520 –> 00:48:55,735
And even as an industrial stand,
the claimed figures

692
00:48:55,880 –> 00:48:58,648
are highly exaggerated
since a large portion of the

693
00:48:58,808 –> 00:49:02,120
planted seedlings are soon
removed by thinning.

694
00:49:03,849 –> 00:49:07,560
This claim was spread during
the World Economic Forum.

695
00:49:08,347 –> 00:49:11,207
It is only during the last about 50 years

696
00:49:11,370 –> 00:49:14,815
that we really have been
doing extensive planting of

697
00:49:14,880 –> 00:49:17,800
forest in Sweden and in
Northern Sweden.

698
00:49:18,318 –> 00:49:23,280
Before that, most of the regeneration
was natural regeneration.

699
00:49:23,370 –> 00:49:27,120
Just trees felling their seeds, and
you got trees from that.

700
00:49:27,440 –> 00:49:29,760
So that is absolutely not true.

701
00:49:35,650 –> 00:49:38,007
Apart from traditional
marketing and lobbying,

702
00:49:38,120 –> 00:49:40,450
the forest industry
has realised the value

703
00:49:40,590 –> 00:49:43,020
of funding and controlling
research projects.

704
00:49:43,209 –> 00:49:47,150
“Then we have to trim the Volvo so that
we increase the growth of the forest.”

705
00:49:51,917 –> 00:49:53,920
“Here we have the turbo.”

706
00:49:57,054 –> 00:50:00,680
Professor Erik Westholm was a part
of Future Forests,

707
00:50:00,856 –> 00:50:03,960
the biggest forest research program
in Swedish history,

708
00:50:04,088 –> 00:50:06,600
and afterwards he made a
critical case study of it.

709
00:50:06,720 –> 00:50:12,090
In 2010, I attended World Forestry Congress
in Buenos Aires and was completely

710
00:50:12,180 –> 00:50:17,560
astonished by the enormous concern
about the forests of Australia,

711
00:50:17,730 –> 00:50:20,200
the Mediterranean, Canada and the United States.

712
00:50:20,322 –> 00:50:24,868
Every session almost started
with addressing the climate.

713
00:50:26,000 –> 00:50:30,713
And that was not at all what we where accustomed
to hear in Sweden. In Future Forests, it sounded more like,

714
00:50:30,834 –> 00:50:33,640
well, if it gets 4 degrees C
warmer on Earth

715
00:50:33,784 –> 00:50:36,560
and we get a fertilizer-friendly policy

716
00:50:36,860 –> 00:50:39,295
“If we start now and plant more ‘turbo trees’ on clear-cuts –

717
00:50:39,440 –> 00:50:41,360
preferably in combination with fertilisers”

718
00:50:42,005 –> 00:50:44,120
then we can produce much more forest

719
00:50:44,303 –> 00:50:47,930
and we could increase the export earnings
with several billion.

720
00:50:48,593 –> 00:50:52,120
It has been the same at the Royal Swedish Academy of Agriculture
and Forestry for a long time

721
00:50:52,296 –> 00:50:56,200
and there is a very close alliance
between the Faculty of Forest Sciences

722
00:50:56,250 –> 00:50:58,500
at the University of Agricultural Sciences
and the forest industry.

723
00:50:58,830 –> 00:51:03,692
It is like a culture which
supports the focus on volume increase

724
00:51:03,802 –> 00:51:08,012
that has dominated in
Sweden but with different arguments.

725
00:51:09,122 –> 00:51:12,960
What became increasingly clear to
me was that this program

726
00:51:13,052 –> 00:51:16,742
was established in order to rectify

727
00:51:16,922 –> 00:51:18,992
the forest agenda in Sweden.

728
00:51:19,982 –> 00:51:24,911
It is about gaining increased
legitimacy and increased political support

729
00:51:25,080 –> 00:51:29,240
for the focus on Swedish forest production

730
00:51:29,402 –> 00:51:32,342
and even more on more
intensively cultivated forests.

731
00:51:32,912 –> 00:51:36,720
There was a certain power struggle
in the beginning over the influence between

732
00:51:36,842 –> 00:51:42,727
Mistra, the state-owned financier,
and the forest companies over board seats.

733
00:51:43,007 –> 00:51:49,112
For the board it also meant a certain amount of power
over what was done in the project.

734
00:51:49,592 –> 00:51:54,463
You had money in the board that you could
spend on certain orders and such.

735
00:51:54,760 –> 00:51:58,595
In that way, the research
also came to be governed

736
00:51:58,720 –> 00:52:05,764
not by research motives
or scientific motives,

737
00:52:05,885 –> 00:52:08,554
but by the interests of the funders.

738
00:52:09,634 –> 00:52:14,176
Then you may ask why all these
researchers lined up for such a thing,

739
00:52:14,304 –> 00:52:16,440
but it was actually quite concealed.

740
00:52:16,640 –> 00:52:18,320
In the future studies, you often talked

741
00:52:18,394 –> 00:52:20,944
about a method called Back casting.

742
00:52:21,784 –> 00:52:25,735
You talk about where you would like to reach and
then the research process is about

743
00:52:25,880 –> 00:52:28,444
mapping how
to get there.

744
00:52:29,114 –> 00:52:32,194
But this goal was of course not
openly communicated.

745
00:52:32,434 –> 00:52:36,064
The researchers themselves do not know
that the program has a goal that is

746
00:52:36,164 –> 00:52:37,864
agreed with the funders.

747
00:52:39,044 –> 00:52:45,080
The University was a way to reach
the increased support

748
00:52:45,270 –> 00:52:47,680
for the Swedish forest production.

749
00:52:48,194 –> 00:52:51,464
There is a great power in that we
should not change anything and

750
00:52:51,581 –> 00:52:55,843
if we are going to change anything,
it is just to increase the speed

751
00:52:56,004 –> 00:52:57,889
in the forest production.

752
00:53:00,120 –> 00:53:02,446
It is volume that has mattered.

753
00:53:09,600 –> 00:53:13,383
Another picture of the
Swedish forestry model has emerged.

754
00:53:13,600 –> 00:53:16,216
Since 1950, it has converted more than

755
00:53:16,337 –> 00:53:20,279
60 percent of the Swedish forest
landscape into clearcuts,

756
00:53:20,386 –> 00:53:23,800
young managed forests, industrial
stands and plantations.

757
00:53:24,006 –> 00:53:28,280
In the past, it has sprayed Agent Orange
to kill deciduous trees,

758
00:53:28,444 –> 00:53:33,098
destroyed countless streams, put many
plants, animals, and fungi on the red list

759
00:53:33,280 –> 00:53:36,280
while marketing its own methods as sustainable.

760
00:53:36,460 –> 00:53:40,000
This industry now claims it is
motivated not by profit,

761
00:53:40,190 –> 00:53:42,840
but by concern for climate change.

762
00:53:43,023 –> 00:53:46,320
It seems to be one of the
greatest lies of our time.

763
00:53:47,080 –> 00:53:48,580
Forestry needs to be reformed,

764
00:53:48,719 –> 00:53:51,600
the Swedish clearcutting
and plantation model

765
00:53:51,691 –> 00:53:54,360
replaced by ecosystem based multiple-use,

766
00:53:54,640 –> 00:53:57,792
which will provide a
greater variety of benefits, jobs

767
00:53:57,960 –> 00:54:00,743
and contribute more to our
society than today’s

768
00:54:00,878 –> 00:54:02,770
unsustainable forest exploitation.

769
00:54:03,129 –> 00:54:07,078
We are losing so much and so quickly.

770
00:54:07,828 –> 00:54:12,320
And I think that there is going
to be a real pushback on the

771
00:54:12,448 –> 00:54:15,120
traditional lobbyist, talking points

772
00:54:15,291 –> 00:54:18,080
about how we have to cut
the forest to save it,

773
00:54:18,233 –> 00:54:22,240
and that we are going to replace everything
with all these products with wood.

774
00:54:22,422 –> 00:54:25,080
People can do the math themselves.

775
00:54:25,315 –> 00:54:30,640
They can figure out that we only have a little bit
of this precious forest heritage left.

776
00:54:30,814 –> 00:54:34,920
Old-growth forests are our best defence
against the climate.

777
00:54:35,084 –> 00:54:39,148
We have to stop cutting them and we
have to start really protecting them.

778
00:54:39,538 –> 00:54:44,555
And this is why it is important to maintain
the last pieces of natural dynamic forest

779
00:54:44,920 –> 00:54:46,640
and also to begin the restoring.

780
00:54:47,668 –> 00:54:50,200
And actually the boreal forest is
quite a good place to do that.

781
00:54:50,488 –> 00:54:56,677
If consumption continues to increase,
we must also increase the production

782
00:54:56,880 –> 00:54:58,558
and the emissions
will continue to increase.

783
00:54:59,428 –> 00:55:02,880
In economics, it is usually called Jevons Paradox.

784
00:55:03,160 –> 00:55:07,725
Some environmental problems
related to resource use

785
00:55:07,800 –> 00:55:09,390
cannot be solved technically.

786
00:55:09,660 –> 00:55:11,781
It cannot be solved with
increased production.

787
00:55:12,740 –> 00:55:16,740
What would also be needed
in order to make this happen

788
00:55:16,920 –> 00:55:19,220
is that harmful subsidies are withdrawn.

789
00:55:19,520 –> 00:55:23,040
We would need to plug the ditches
and get more wetlands.

790
00:55:23,486 –> 00:55:26,280
If we look at the emissions from
ditched forest land in Sweden,

791
00:55:26,420 –> 00:55:31,340
it is about almost six million tonnes
of carbon dioxide per year.

792
00:55:31,760 –> 00:55:34,326
This can be compared with the
car traffic corresponding to approximately

793
00:55:34,430 –> 00:55:36,290
10 million tonnes of carbon dioxide per year.

794
00:55:36,740 –> 00:55:43,367
This can be fixed quite easily.
So there are solid, simple ways

795
00:55:43,480 –> 00:55:45,320
to actually make a difference.

796
00:55:46,240 –> 00:55:48,788
People need to stand up to the
forest products industry

797
00:55:48,960 –> 00:55:51,157
and they need to stand
up to the politicians

798
00:55:51,270 –> 00:55:53,480
who are in thrall to the
forest products industry.

799
00:55:53,770 –> 00:55:55,600
When they are marching in
the streets for climate,

800
00:55:55,738 –> 00:55:57,920
they need to be marching
for forests as well.

801
00:55:58,200 –> 00:55:59,820
Now the clock is ticking, so to speak.

802
00:55:59,974 –> 00:56:05,960
We only have very little time,
so the old reasoning fails.

803
00:56:06,632 –> 00:56:09,840
We simply have to change
the discussion to

804
00:56:09,997 –> 00:56:12,520
the emergency situation we face.

805
00:56:12,960 –> 00:56:15,835
If we continue above the 1.5 degree C target,

806
00:56:16,000 –> 00:56:19,562
towards 2-3 degrees C, then we may
risk crossing boundaries

807
00:56:19,652 –> 00:56:24,240
where the environment begins to generate
greenhouse gases by itself

808
00:56:24,403 –> 00:56:27,160
without us being able to control it at all.

809
00:56:27,332 –> 00:56:28,982
We cross so-called tipping points.

810
00:56:29,282 –> 00:56:32,642
The dynamics shift to an enhanced
greenhouse effect by itself.

811
00:56:32,912 –> 00:56:36,760
Then it is too late.
And therefore, the forestry

812
00:56:36,902 –> 00:56:41,102
in Sweden and the world simply has
to change its attitude quickly.

813
00:56:41,952 –> 00:56:44,360
It is still thought that the forest grows back.

814
00:56:44,447 –> 00:56:45,947
Yes, but it is in a hundred years.

815
00:56:47,312 –> 00:56:48,640
Then it is too late.

816
00:56:49,207 –> 00:56:50,707
Who are you going to trust on climate,

817
00:56:50,828 –> 00:56:53,760
the forest products industry
or the IPCC?

818
00:56:53,940 –> 00:56:56,000
Personally, I would trust the scientists.

819
00:56:56,354 –> 00:56:59,854
The IPCC has made it
clear that restoring and

820
00:57:00,104 –> 00:57:04,217
expanding forests is our best
hope for fighting climate change.

821
00:57:04,400 –> 00:57:08,161
In addition, of course, to
dramatic reductions in emissions.

822
00:57:08,480 –> 00:57:12,224
We all have to learn
to use less, and we have to

823
00:57:12,366 –> 00:57:16,274
leave the forest in place to
provide a home for animals,

824
00:57:16,424 –> 00:57:18,800
plants, and the rest
of the life on earth.

825
00:57:19,051 –> 00:57:22,656
And if we do not, we are going to
learn that we are really sorry.

826
00:57:24,000 –> 00:57:27,000
English subtitles: Amanda Tas

 

Print Friendly, PDF & Email

http://wilmarigl.de

en_USEnglish